Objective: To compare the effects of alitretionin and isotretionin on endometrial peritoneal implants and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Study design: Forty-eight female Sprague Dawley rats were used. Initially surgical rat endometriosis model was done. The endometrial implant volume was measured and rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1: Control group (rats did not get any drug but having endometriotic implants), group 2: rats receiving po isotretionin 10 mg/kg per day for 10 d, group 3: rats receiving po isotretionin 20 mg/kg per day for 10 d and group 4: rats receiving po alitretionin 80 mg/kg per day for 10 d. After 1-week medication, rats were sacrificed and size, histopathology of endometriotic implant and levels of VEGF were evaluated. Results: Volumes of peritoneal endometrial implants were significantly decreased in Group 2 and Group 3 compared with initial values. However, there were no significant changes in histopathological scores and serum VEGF levels in all groups. Conclusions: This study finding may suggest the possible medical treatment modality of isotretionin on endometriosis. However, alitretionin (potent retinoid) does not have potent regressive effect on endometriotic implants as in isotretionin.