Background: Most duodenal injuries are managed with primary repair, but the degree of duodenal-wall injury may threaten the integrity of the primary repair. Therefore, we evaluated whether the primary repair site could be reinforced with histoacryl glue (HAG) or HAG with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) mesh. Methods: Grade 3 duodenal injury in the second portion of the rat duodenum was chosen as a standard trauma model. Thirty-three male rats were divided into sham (n = 3), 2-layer primary repair (n = 10), 1-layer primary repair plus HAG application (n = 10) and ePTFE attached with HAG over the 1-layer primary repair site (n = 10) groups. Ten-day survival, adhesion grades and histological assessment were taken as outcome measures. Results: A significant survival advantage was identified in the group that had an ePTFE graft attached with HAG over a 1-layer repair when compared with the group that had a 2-layer primary repair. Adhesion grades were found to be particularly increased in the group that had an ePTFE graft attached with HAG over the primary repair site, moderately increased in the primary repair plus HAG application group and lower in the 2-layer primary repair group. ePTFE graft application was found to be beneficial to coverage of the HAG-dependent empty spaces in the serosal layer. Conclusions: A primary repair site after duodenal trauma or a difficult duodenal stump can be reinforced with the application of HAG or ePTFE graft implantation with HAG.