Aim and background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are not only hepatotropic, but also lymphotropic viruses. Infections with these viruses induce chronic antigenicity and may stimulate clonal expansion of malignant B-cell neoplasms. Moreover, these viruses can proliferate in lymphatic structures and bone marrow. However, the relationship between lymphomas and HBV/HCV infections is not clear. In our region of the East Black Sea, Turkey (the city of Trabzon), we intended to demonstrate a relation of lymphoma and HBV/HCV infections with a case-controlled study.