Objective. To investigate the effect of determination of human papillomavirus ( HPV) subtype on the success of imiquimod therapy in women with vulvar condylomata acuminata. Methods. A total of 132 women with biopsy-proven vulvar condylomata acuminata were enrolled in this prospective study. HPV DNA detection and determination of genotype were made through polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) technique. The women were treated with imiquimod cream 5% in the area of the visible lesions, three times a week at night for 16 weeks. Results. Twelve of the 132 women ( 9.1%) failed to detect any improvement with this therapy during the 16-week period. However, 80 women ( 60.6%) experienced total clearance of the lesions, and 20 women ( 15.2%) observed a partial response. The complete response rates were 76.2% for HPV-6, 66.7% for HPV-11, 35% for HPV-6 plus 11, and 6.3% for unclassified HPV subtypes ( other HPV subtypes than HPV 6 and -11). Conclusions. Topical imiquimod 5% cream is an appropriate treatment modality for HPV-6 or -11 positive vulvar warts.