Solid particle erosion inevitably occurs if a gas–solid or liquid–solid mixture is in contact with a surface, e.g., in pneumatic conveyors. Nowadays, an erosive failure of the component after the usage of a long period has been gaining the interest of the researchers. In this research work, carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are prepared by varying the tow sizes of fibres, such as 5k, 10k, and 15k. The prepared composites are subjected to erosion studies by varying the process parameters, such as the impact angle (30, 60, and 90 degrees) and velocity (72, 100, and 129 m/s). The Taguchi orthogonal array design has been employed for the experimental plan and the erosion rate and surface roughness are observed for each run. The changes in the responses are reported for varying process parameters. The higher erodent velocity of 129m/s leads to higher erosion rates and forms poor surface quality. The minimum impact angle of 30 degrees provides higher erosion rates and higher surface roughness than the other impingement angles. Finally, the eroded surface of each sample is examined through microscopic and 3D profilometer images and the erosion mechanism is analysed at different conditions. The eroded particles supplied at lower speeds do not penetrate the composite surface. However, it is well-known that the lower the collision force, the harder the traces on the surface, yet no sign of fibre breaking or pull-out is observed. The passage of erodent particles on the composite caused surface waviness (flow trace), which prevents the surface from degrading.