Objective. To evaluate survival estimates and clinico-pathological variables in women with primary vulvar squamous cancer. Design. Retrospective observational study. Setting. University hospital in Turkey. Population or sample. Patients treated for primary vulvar squamous cancer. Methods. Retrospective evaluation of demographic, pathologic and follow-up data of 91 patients obtained from hospital records and private gynecologic oncology files. Main outcome measures. Recurrence rate and survival estimates. Results. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 62 years. Of the women, 62% had early stage disease (stages I-II), while 39% had advanced stages (stages III-IV) at diagnosis. The overall recurrence rate was 13%. Recurrence rates were significantly higher in the presence of local wide-deep excision as an initial treatment, larger initial tumor size, positive lymph node involvement, advanced stage, presence of ulcerative lesions and adjuvant radiotherapy. The overall and 5-year survival estimates were 92 and 83%, respectively. Conclusion. Lymph node invasion, stage, having ulcerative lesion, receiving adjuvant therapy, tumor diameter larger than 10 mm and having local excision as primary surgery may increase the risk of recurrent disease.