Objectives. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage of the lung is a frequently encountered complication following aortic surgery. The aim of the present study is to investigate the histopathological effects of Iloprost on pulmonary damage developed after I/R. Design. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. In the control group, aortas were not clamped. In the I/R group, aortas were occluded, and after 1 h of ischemia, clamps were removed. After 2 h of reperfusion period, lungs of the rats were extracted. In the I/R + Iloprost group after 1 h of ischemia, Iloprost infusion was initiated, and maintained for the duration of 2 h reperfusion period. For histopathological scoring, density of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, congestion, interstitial edema, and bleeding were semiquantitatively evaluated, and histopathological changes were scored. Results. In the I/R group, multifocal-marked histopathological changes in 5 (62.5%), and multifocal-moderate histopathological changes in 3 (37.5%) rats were detected. In the I/R + Iloprost group, multifocal-moderate histopathological changes in 4 (50%), and multifocal-mild changes in 4 (50%) rats were detected. Conclusions. In the experimental rat model, administration of Iloprost has been shown to have preventive effects for pulmonary damage occurring after I/R generated by infrarenal aortic occlusion.