Molybdenum Modified Sol-Gel Synthesized TiO2 for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Carbamazepine under UV Irradiation

Creative Commons License

Anucha C. B., BACAKSIZ E., Stathopoulos V. N., Pandis P. K., Argirusis C., Andreouli C., ...More

PROCESSES, vol.10, no.6, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/pr10061113
  • Journal Name: PROCESSES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: TiO2, AOPs, heterogeneous photocatalysis, semiconductors, doping, sol-gel, sonochemical doping, UV-visible, carbamazepine, CECs, PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS, ORGANIC POLLUTANTS, TREATMENT PLANTS, METHYLENE-BLUE, THIN-FILMS, WATCH LIST, WATER, PHARMACEUTICALS, REMOVAL, MO
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Pharmaceutical CEC compounds are a potential threat to man, animals, and the environment. In this study, a sol-gel-derived TiO2 (SynTiO(2)) was produced and subsequently sonochemically doped with a 1.5 wt% Mo to obtain the final product (Mo (1.5 wt%)/SynTiO(2)). The as-prepared materials were characterized for phase structure, surface, and optical properties by XRD, TEM, N-2 adsorption-desorption BET isotherm at 77 K, and PSD by BJH applications, FTIR, XPS, and UV-Vis measurements in DRS mode. Estimated average crystallite size, particle size, surface area, pore-volume, pore size, and energy bandgap were 16.10 nm, 24.55 nm, 43.30 m(2)/g, 0.07 cm(3)/g, 6.23 nm, and 3.05 eV, respectively, for Mo/SynTiO(2). The same structural parameters were also estimated for the unmodified SynTiO(2) with respective values of 14.24 nm, 16.02 nm, 133.87 m(2)/g, 0.08 cm(3)/g, 2.32 nm, and 3.3 eV. Structurally improved (Mo (1.5 wt%)/SynTiO(2)) achieved approximate to 100% carbamazepine (CBZ) degradation after 240 min UV irradiation under natural (unmodified) pH conditions. Effects of initial pH, catalyst dosage, initial pollutant concentration, chemical scavengers, contaminant ions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and humic acid (HA) were also investigated and discussed. The chemical scavenger test was used to propose involved photocatalytic degradation process mechanism of CBZ.