Using various methods and substances for improving performance in sports is described as doping. Doping has always been a critical issue in terms of ethical and medical reasons. In this regard, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is making significant efforts. Anabolic agents (androsterone, testosterone, oxymetholone, clenbuterol, etc.), hormones, and metabolic modulators (raloxifene, meldonium, theophylline etc.) are prohibited by WADA. Therefore, sensitive and selective determination of these substances in biological and pharmaceutical samples is highly significant. Electroanalytical techniques stand out as sensitive, reliable, fast, and eco-friendly options over other methods. Nanomaterials are stable, catalytic, and easily applicable modification materials. In this context, numerous nanomaterials are used to enhance the performance of the electrochemical sensors. This review examines the latest studies between 2011 and 2021 based on the nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors as highly sensitive, selective, user-friendly, low-cost, and rapid tools for the determination of selected prohibited substances (hormones, metabolic modulators, and anabolic agents) in biological, pharmaceutical and food samples. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.