TURKISH STUDIES, vol.10, no.8, pp.1865-1890, 2015 (SSCI)
The aim of this article is that to tell about of Köprülüzâde Abdullah Pasha’s life and his Kasîde-i Vâviyye wrote about his father in love Şeyhulislâm Feyzullah Efendi (d. 1704). Article is comprised of two main parts, four sub-headings and result with the exception of introduction. Poet's life in the first main topic is discussed briefly. In the first sub-heading of the second part, has been given the Arabic kasîde with its prose translation. In other titles, respectively, different subjects like to be evolution of the kasîde in terms of contents, eloquence and literary arts, sentence typesetting and word structure and zarûrat al-şi‘riyye/necessities of the poetry focused. Köprülüzâde Abdullah Pasha was an Ottoman general of the first half of the 18th century and one of the commanders during the Ottoman-Persian War. He was a member of the renowned Köprülü Family that had given three grand viziers to the Ottoman Empire. Abdullah Pasha was the second son of Köprülüzâde Fâzıl Mustafa Pasha who killed as martyr in war of Salankamen in 1691. His surname (consisting of abû or umm followed by the name of the son) is Abû Nâile, according to some tabakât books and his manuscripts at the various libraries. Abdullah Pasha's works and functions that he stayed suggest that he had got a good education. Probably, he received his elementary education from his father or children’s school. If we consider the current education system in his time, we can say that Abdullah Pasha could have completed his education in the 18-20 age. Accordingly, it can be that the date of Pasha is between 1088 and 1090. According to bibliography sources, Abdullah Pasha married with Zübeyde the girl of Şeyhülislâm Feyzullah Efendi and rose to the rank of vizier. After a short time, in 1702, he was governor of İstanbul that accepted the first office after the grand vizier in the state organization. He was appointed a governor of various cities (etc. Sakız, Sivas, Trabzon –twice-, Eğriboz, Musul and Aydın) between 105 and 1715. In 1716, he was appointed as Ministir of war/Serasker of Kudus, Hamid and Mora. Abdullah Pasha worked in different government offices between 1723 and 1735. He met the Persian general Nadir Shah in the Battle of Arpaçayı in 1735 and been martyred in the mentioned battle, like his father. He had seven children including one girl. Boy’s names are Abdurrahman Bey (dead when he was governor of Trabzon), Abdullah Bey (d. 1749), Ammar Bey (d. 1759), Ayaz Bey (d. 1763), Hamdi Mehmed Bey (d. 1771), Sadık Mehmed Bey (d. 1763) and Affân Bey (d.1783). His daughter and his wife are buried in the tomb next to the mosque, which was built in Diyarbakır his own. Abdullah Pasha made many endowment buildings to be used in the service of human society and he paid careful attention about taking the necessary measures in order to meet the needs of all kinds of buildigs. According to libraries records, Abdullah Pasha wrote three books. One of them is Durriyyât/Nuhbet al-aş‘âr and it consists of his selected poems. The second book is Şerh al-Kasîde al-‘ayniyye li-İbn Sina. It is interpretation on poems of İbn Sina. The last work of him is the el-Edille al-mukni‘a fî kırâet al-eimme al-erb‘a. The content of this book is evidences regarding the recitation of the four reader leaders. Abdullah Pasha's poems suggest that he had the private interest against Arab poetry. Some of his poems have been interpreted by his contemporaries: Abdulbakî Ârif Efendi (d. 1713) known as “hezafen” in his period and Gölpazarlı Mehmed Selîm Efendi (d. 1726), wrote a book about the zarûrât al-şi‘riyye/necessities of poetry, when he was alive. The name’s his poem, which elucidated by his contemporary by Gölpazarlı, is Kasîde al-Vâviyye. It’s named as Vâviyye because of the rhyme letter. This kasîde was told in bahr of Tavîl and consist of forty six couplet. Kasîde that is the subject of this study is not to be found in the books which included his poems and poetry reviews that consist of poems written by Turkish, Arabic and Persian languages. Therefore, this kasîde was discovered from book named Dureru’l-ferâ’id ve gureru’l-fevâ’id wrote by Gölpazarlı. Abdullah Pasha's poem, is not having an Islamic nature notwithstanding contains some religious terms. Therefore, it accommodates the clues of Pre-Islamic poetry. Poetry can be considered in three parts. In the nesîb section (between 1st and 7th couplets), Köprülüzâde have been given information about his amour by starting a negative question into poetry. He does not address the atlâl issue in this part on the contrary the general practice. Tasvîr section (from 8th to 23rd couplets) is second section of kasîde and in here, Köprülüzâde have been provided information about place where abandoned lover, tent disassembled by his lover’s clan and traces left by the tent, depiction of the physical aspects of the beloved, his love to his darling etc. Medih section: 24th couplet is tahallus couplet. In the couplets, from 25th to 30th, have been given information about portrayal of his praised people. The 31st – 34th couplets are about pedigree of praised people and his superiority in terms of genealogy. The 35th – 43rd couplets are about his accuracy in world and act and accomplish. The subject of the 44th – 46th couplets is pray to his praised man: Şeyhülislam Feyzullah Efendi. Kasîde of Köprülüzâde is very rich in terms of art of science of metaphors and stylistics (‘ilm al-badî’), the study of semantics (‘ilm al-ma’ânî’) and the study of rhetoric and elegant composition (‘ilm al-belâğa’). The subjects dealt with in the study, are offer tips about the dominance of poetry, the structure of the education system of the period and the content of the curriculum. Topics covered in poetry, according as sciences above-mentioned are fallows: 1- Meânî: İltifât (8, 11, 44 couplets); tekmîl kind of itnâb (15, 20, 24, 27) kinâye (11, 18, 31, 37, 46); îğâl (5, 13); tetmîm (8, 12, 13, 20, 21, 25, 28, 29) and sort of this tetmîm lafzî (27). 2-Beyân: Teşbîh (13, 16, 22, 38) and kind of this tesbih belîğ (30), tesbih maklûb (16); mecâz mürsel tebeiyye (7); istiâre (28) and one of its kind istiâre mekniyye (15, 24, 25); istiâre muraşşaha (30); istiâre tahyîliyye (15, 24, 25); istiâre tahkîkiyye muraşşaha (30), istiâre tahkîkiyye (39); istiâre mücerrede (39); istiâre tebeiyye (19) ve istiâre telmîhiyye (3). 3- Bedî: Mübâlağa (10, 17, 19, 22) and kind of this mübâlağa makbûle (10); mürâ‘ât nazîr (3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 22, 35); tecâhul ârif other name is sevk al-malûm mesâka gayrih (1, 6); tecrîd (38); terdîd (37), teshîm or irsâd (6, 23); teşâbuh al-etrâf (15); tıbâk (20, 27); mureşşehe (3) of named tevriye or îhâm; te’kîdü’l-medh bimâ yuşbihu’z-zem (14) –these are from muhassinât al-maneviyye. From muhassinât-i lafziyye are following: Haşv sedîd (9); husn al-ibtidâ (1); husn al-intihâ (46); tasrî‘ (1); cinâs mefrûk (1); tecnîs ba‘z (46); tecnîs mugâyır (22); tecnîs mukârib (26), tecnîs mutmi‘ (25); îtâ’ (35); tetbî‘ (11); mutâba‘a (46); tevârud (15) and teybîn other named tefsir (9).
Bu makâlenin temel amacı, Köprülüzâde Abdullah Paşa’nın hayatının özet olarak anlatılması ve kayınpederi ve aynı zamanda dönemin Şeyhülis-lâmı Feyzullah Efendi’ye hitâben kasîde türünde kaleme aldığı kırk altı be-yitlik şiirinin farklı yönlerden araştırılması ve tahlîli amaçlanmıştır. Kasîde, Arap şiiri arûzunun tavîl bahrinde nazmedilmiş olup kafiye harfinin vâv olmasından dolayı Kasîde-i vâviyye olarak isimlendirilmiştir. Yapılan çalışmalarda, devletteki etkinlikleriyle tanınan bir ailenin ferdi olmasından dolayı daha çok devlet adamlığı yönüyle ön plana çıkmış olan Köprülüzâde Abdullah Paşa’nın kasîdesinin, çağdaşı Gölpazarlı Mehmed Selîm Efendi tarfından Düreru’l-ferâ’id ve ğureru’l-fevâ’id isimli çalışmasında şerh edildiğini ve ayrıca şiirlerini ihtiva eden mecmuaların olduğunu tespitten sonra, ilmî yönünü ortaya koymak, bu yazının ikinci hedefi olmuştur. Konusu medih olan bu kâsiede, ne kütüphanelerdeki Abdullah Pa-şa’ya ait şiir konulu kitapları ile diğer eserlerinde ne de Feyzullah Efendi hakkında Türkçe, Arapça ve Farsça olarak nazmedilmiş şiirilerin toplandığı mecmuada geçmektedir. Bu nedenle şiir, yukarı adı geçen müellifin eserinden istifâde edilerek ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Makâlemiz, girişin hâricinde iki ana bölüm ile bunlara ait dört alt baş-lıktan ve sonuç kısmından müteşekkildir. Birinci ana başlıkta şâirin hayatı kısaca anlatılmıştır. İkinci bölümün birinci alt başlığında, kasîde mensûr çevirisi ile verilmiş, diğer başlıklarda sırasıyla, kasîdenin muhtevâ yönünden, belâğat ve edebî sanatlar açısından, cümle dizgisi ve kelime yapısı yönünden ve zarûrat-i şi‘riyye bakımından değerlendirilmesi gibi konuları ele alınmış ve sonuç kısmında ise elde edilen neticeler özetlenmiştir.