Evaluation of Clinical and Hematological Findings of Patients with Acute and Reactivated EBV Infection


Bahadır A., Tekin T., Aydın Kasap Z., Reis İskenderoğlu G. P., Erduran E.

Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

Abstract

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a latent DNA virus that infects B lymphocytes, can cause widespread hematological findings, and can cause various disease manifestations. In our study, it was aimed to the clinical and hematological findings of those in the pediatric age group patients with a primary EBV infection and those with EBV reactivation. The files of the patients whose EBV serology was evaluated and followed up with the diagnosis of EBV. Patient parameters such as age, sex, clinical complaints, physical examination findings, hematologic and biochemical parameters were compared between the primary infection and reactivation groups. Of the 2200 screened patients, 204 were included in the study as EBV primary infection and 117 as EBV reactivation. Concurrent hematological findings were present in 91.1% of patients with EBV primary infection and in 90.6% of patients with reactivation. The rate of lymphocytosis in blood tests and peripheral smears in the primary infection group was significantly higher than in the reactivation group (p < 0.05). The incidence of leukopenia, lymphopenia and pancytopenia was significantly higher in the reactivation group (p < 0.05). It was observed that malignancy developed in 5.1% of the patients with EBV reactivation. This study was conducted by including a large pediatric patient population. Patients presenting with cytopenia should be evaluated for EBV reactivation, since the rate of cytopenia is high in patients in the reactivation phase. Patients with a history of EBV infection should be closely followed-up for the early diagnosis and treatment of possible late complications of EBV, especially lymphoproliferative cancers.