Two interlinked and complex problems face energy policymakers: future energy supplies and climate change. The choices made on energy mix will lock development pathways for some considerable time ahead. Climate change is a challenging problem. Decarbonizing the energy system requires sustainable and environmentally friendly technologies that work within the context of the planetary environment and do not cause "collateral damage." Several approaches are available, but nuclear power is an unsustainable technology that has already caused "collateral damage" and will leave a toxic legacy of waste, for which there appears to be no solution. Including nuclear in a future energy system is a step in the wrong direction. Renewable energy sources are essential to tackle climate change. Renewable energy technologies are uniquely well suited to respond to the limitations of current patterns of energy generation and consumption, to complement existing energy production systems, and to contribute to the further modernization of the energy sector. This article aims at giving a critical picture of the expenditures in research and development for nuclear power and renewable energy sources in the European Union.