Thermochemical biomass conversion processes, including mainly pyrolysis, liquefaction and supercritical fluid extraction, were applied non-catalytically and catalytically to obtain the maximum fuels from biomass. Different solvents and their mixtures were used in simple and supercritical extractions. Basic catalysts, such as NaOH, Na2CO3 and K2CO3, were used in catalytic conversion experiments. The experiments were performed within the 498-820 K range. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.