Turkey is an energy importing country; more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and lignites are characterized by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Because of this and the fact that it has limited fossil fuel resources, a gradual shift from fossil fuels to renewables seems to be serious and the sole alternative for Turkey. This article presents a review of the present energy situation and sustainability, technical and economical potential of renewable energy sources, and future policies for the energy, sector in Turkey. Throughout this paper several problems relating to energy sources and sustainable development are discussed from both current and future perspectives.