The purpose of this study was to evaluate the likely protective effect of resveratrol (RES) on doxorubicin (DOX) induced testicular damage. Rats were divided into five groups: control, RES, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), DOX and DOX + RES. At the end of treatment, the rats were sacrificed. Plasma testosterone levels, oxidative status, epididymal sperm parameters and testicular apoptosis were evaluated. MDA levels, GPx and GSH activities were higher in the DOX group than in the control group. MDA levels were lower in the DOX + RES group than in the DOX group. The DOX group exhibited a significant decrease in plasma testosterone levels, sperm concentration and motility, and a significant increase in abnormal sperm rate and TUNEL (+) cells in the testis. A significant increase was observed in plasma testosterone levels and sperm concentration and motility, and a significant decrease in the abnormal sperm rate and TUNEL (+) cells in the DOX + RES group compared to the DOX group. A marked improvement in severe degenerative alterations in the germinative epithelium was also observed following treatment with RES. In conclusion, RES makes a positive contribution to fertility by exhibiting anti-apoptotic and antiperoxidative effects against DOX-induced testicular damage. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.