Ischemia is a major cause of flap failure in reconstructive surgery. To detect circulatory compromise, many flap monitoring methods are used; however, there is no any optimal standard method. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is an ischemia marker, which has recently been investigated in many studies and largely validated for early detection of ischemia. In this study, we investigated possible relationship between muscle flap viability and serum IMA levels in experimental flap model. The rectus abdominis muscle flap model was used in 18 New Zealand white rabbits. The study was planned using 3 groups. In group 1, the rectus abdominis muscle flap was harvested as a superior pedicle-based flap in which the inferior pedicle was sacrificed. In group 2, the flap was harvested by severing the superior pedicle. Both pedicles were harvested in group 3. Serum IMA levels were measured before the procedure and 1 hour, 6 hours, and 7 days postoperatively and then compared. In group 3, in which the ischemia was evident, and in group 1, IMA levels were significantly high 1 hour postoperatively (P < 0.05). There was no other significant difference in any of the other studied parameters between the groups. In conclusion, IMA can be used as a biochemical parameter for monitoring muscle flap viability.