Geothermal energy: Power for a sustainable future

Kaygusuz K., KAYGUSUZ A.

ENERGY SOURCES, vol.24, no.10, pp.937-947, 2002 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2002
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00908310290086851
  • Journal Name: ENERGY SOURCES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.937-947
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This paper discusses the potential and utilization of geothermal energy in Turkey. Geothermal energy for electricity generation has been produced commercially since 1913, and for 4 decades on the scale of hundreds of MW both for electricity generation and direct use. Utilization has increased rapidly during the last 3 decades. In 2000, geothermal resources were identified in over 80 countries, and there are quantified records of geothermal utilization in 58 countries in the world. The worldwide use of geothermal energy amounts to 49 TWh/y of electricity and 53 TWh/y for direct use. On the other hand, Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. Resource assessments have been made many times by the Mineral Research and Exploration Directorate (MTA) of Turkey. The main uses of geothermal energy are mostly moderate and low temperature applications such as space heating and domestic hot water supply, greenhouse heating, industrial processes, heat pumps, and electricity generation. The data accumulated since 1962 show that the estimated geothermal power and direct use potential are about 4500 MWe and 31500 MWt, respectively. Present applications have shown that geothermal energy in Turkey and other countries is clean and much cheaper compared to the other fossil and renewable energy sources.