Spread of carbapenem-resistant international clones of Acinetobacter baumannii in Turkey and Azerbaijan: a collaborative study

Ahmed S. S., Alp E., Ulu-Kilic A., Dinc G., Aktas Z., Ada B., ...More

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY & INFECTIOUS DISEASES, vol.35, no.9, pp.1463-1468, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii, described as European clones I, II, and III, are associated with hospital epidemics throughout the world. We aimed to determine the molecular characteristics and genetic diversity between European clones I, II, and III from Turkey and Azerbaijan. In this study, a total of 112 bloodstream isolates of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. were collected from 11 hospitals across Turkey and Azerbaijan. The identification of Acinetobacter spp. using conventional and sensitivity tests was performed by standard criteria. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect OXA carbapenemase-encoding genes (bla(OXA-23-like), bla(OXA-24-like), bla(OXA-51-like), and bla(OXA-58-like)). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing was used to investigate genetic diversity. The bla(OXA-51-like) gene was present in all 112 isolates, 75 (67 %) carried bla(OXA-23-like), 7 (6.2 %) carried bla(OXA-58-like) genes, and 5 (4.5 %) carried bla(OXA-24-like) genes. With a 90 % similarity cut-off value, 15 clones and eight unique isolates were identified. The largest clone was cluster D, with six subtypes. Isolates from clusters D and I were widely spread in seven different geographical regions throughout Turkey. However, F cluster was found in the northern and eastern regions of Turkey. EU clone I was grouped within J cluster with three isolates found in Antalya, Istanbul, and Erzurum. EU clone II was grouped in the U cluster with 15 isolates and found in Kayseri and Diyarbakir. The bla(OXA-24-like) gene in carbapenemases was identified rarely in Turkey and has been reported for the first time from Azerbaijan. Furthermore, this is the first multicenter study in Turkey and Azerbaijan to identify several major clusters belonging to European clones I and II of A. baumannii.