Background The aim of this study was to explore effects of erythropoietin and pentoxifylline in tacrolimus-induced pancreatic beta cell and renal injury in rats. Methods Rats in group I were given saline; rats in group II were injected with tacrolimus; rats in group III were received erythropoietin (Epo) and tacrolimus; while rats in group IV were injected pentoxifylline (Ptx) plus tacrolimus for nined. On 10th day, blood and tissue samples were taken for biochemical and pathological evaluations. Results Tacrolimus-injected animals exhibited significant elevation in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum BUN levels were improved in rats pretreated with Ptx. Significantly more apoptotic nuclei were observed in kidneys of tacrolimus group. In rats subjected to tacrolimus and pretreated with Epo, there was significant decrease in apoptotic nuclei staining than those in tacrolimus group. Blood trough levels of tacrolimus were significantly higher in erythropoietin-pretreated group, although same amount of tacrolimus was injected with other groups. Conclusion Results of our study demonstrated significant antiapoptotic effects of erythropoietin on renal tubules, increasing effect of erythropoietin on tacrolimus blood levels, and insignificant antioxidant effects of both erythropoietin and pentoxifylline on renal and pancreas tissues. Study with clinically greater tacrolimus levels may be useful to confirm these findings.