The present study aimed to define the sociodemographic characteristics of adolescent mothers in Turkey as well as to compare their traumatic childhood experiences and their depression and anxiety levels with those of adult mothers. Sixty-eight mothers participated in this cross-sectional study. The frequency of traumatic childhood experiences and the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms among the adolescent mothers were found to be significantly lower than among the adult mothers, except for emotional neglect. The severity of anxiety symptoms was found to be significantly higher in those adolescent mothers who did not intend to become pregnant and who live with their own family or in institutional care than in those who live with their partner and/or his family. This is the first study to evaluate the traumatic childhood experiences of adolescent mothers in Turkey. Further, this cross-sectional study demonstrates that the initial psychiatric assessment of adolescent mothers who intended to become pregnant might reflect their level of psychiatric wellbeing. It is clear that additional policies concerning the prevention of adolescent pregnancy and the follow-up of adolescent mothers need to be developed in Turkey.