The processing of wood-based panels such as plywood, particleboard and fiberboard, which are widely used in the furniture industry, with CNC (Computer Numerical Control) milling machines has been increasing recently. Even though CNC milling machines have many advantages for furniture producers, it is difficult to set process parameters to obtain the desired surface quality of the material. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the most suitable of these parameters for the surface quality of each wood-based panel. This study aimed to determine the effects of processing parameters on the surface quality of plywood, particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels processed in CNC milling machines. Furthermore, the average surface roughness values of these panels were compared after CNC processing. Three spindle rotational frequencies (10.000, 14.000 and 18.000 rpm), three feed rates (5, 7, and 9 m/min) and two cutting tool diameters (2 and 5 mm) were selected as CNC processing parameters. To determine the surface quality of wood-based panels, the surface roughness measurements were performed according to DIN 4768 standard and three surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rmax and Rz) were determined. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the surface roughness values of wood-based panels decreased with increasing spindle rotational frequency and feed rate, while they increased with increasing cutting tool diameter. Among the wood-based panels used in this study, the lowest average roughness values were obtained for plywood samples.