Purpose: To compare central fovea! thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and subfoveal choroidal thickness using swept-source optical coherence tomography in premature children with a history of treated retinopathy of prematurity (either with intravitreal bevacizumab or laser photocoagulation) or spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity versus age-matched healthy children at the age of 5 years. Methods: A total of 79 children were divided into four groups: group 1, children who received intravitreal bevacizumab treatment; group 2, children who received laser photocoagulation treatment; group 3, children who had spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity; and group 4, age matched, full-term healthy children. At the age of 5 years, visual functions and refractive status were assessed. The optical coherence tomography analysis was performed using swept-source optical coherence tomography (DRI-OCT Triton; Topcon, USA). Results: There were 12 (15.2%), 23 (29.1%), 30 (38%), and 14 (17.7%) children in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Sex distribution was similar between the groups (p=0.420). Best corrected visual acuity was significantly better in group 4 compared with groups 1, 2, and 3 (p=0.035, p=0.001, and p=0.001, respectively). Refractive error results were similar between the groups (p=0.119). Central fovea! thickness was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (p=0.023). There were no significant differences observed between the groups in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p >0.05). Conclusions: Visual functional outcomes were better in term-born healthy children compared with those noted in children with a history of treated retinopathy of prematurity and spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity. Laser treatment exerted a significant effect on central foveal thickness in premature children at the age of 5 years, as revealed by swept-source optical coherence tomography.