This study analyzes the impacts of spatiotemporal changes on C dynamics based on the various C pools and forest structure in western Turkey. The forest C dynamics were projected by forest inventory data between 1972 and 2016, and the spatial distribution of C storage was mapped by GIS. Total C storage increased from 1135.22 Gg in 1972 to 1816.60 Gg in 2016 with a net accumulation of 681.38 Gg. While the largest contribution to C pool was from soil organic carbon with 58.6% and 49.3% of the total C storage in 1972 and 1994, it was from living biomass with 54.0% and 57.7% in 2004 and 2016, respectively. The mean annual C sequestration was 1.57 Mg ha(-1) year(-1), including 1.49 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)in biomass and 0.08 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)in soil over four decades. The mixed cover type was the most significant contributor to biomass, soil, and total C storages. However, the hardwood cover type was the most significant contributor to C densities due to the higher growing stock. The mature development stages (35.6 Gg year(-1)), the fully covered areas (13.2 Gg year(-1)), and the older forests have played an essential role in C sequestration. The spatial distribution of C dynamics was heterogenic due to forest cover type, forest structure, and species composition. Monitoring spatiotemporal changes in forest ecosystems in terms of forest cover type, development stage, coverages, and age class distribution can provide opportunities in developing effective forest management policies based on the ecological sustainability of C pools and mitigating climate change effects.