Determination of anomalies associated with Sb mineralization in soil geochemistry: A case study in Turhal (northern Turkey)

Yaylali-Abanuz G.

JOURNAL OF GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION, vol.132, pp.63-74, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 132
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2013.05.006
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.63-74
  • Keywords: Geochemical exploration, Soil, Antimony, Turhal, Turkey, EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY, GOLD, CONTAMINATION, INDUSTRIAL, THRESHOLD
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, a soil geochemistry survey was conducted and most suitable pathfinder elements for the exploration of Sb deposits and anomaly distribution models of these elements were studied. In this regard, 138 samples taken from the A (top soil) and B horizons of the soil were analyzed for concentrations of Ag, Al, As, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn. All elements had asymmetrical rather than normal distributions. In soil samples from the A horizon, concentrations of Sb, As, Ag, Au and Hg are 0.42-2000 mg/kg, 2.10-5470.40 mg/kg, 10-348 mu g/kg, 0.80-66.40 mu g/kg and 22-1714 mu g/kg, respectively. Concentrations of the same elements in the B horizon were 0.36-2000 mg/kg, 4.10-4019 mg/kg, 2-217 mu g/kg, 0.20-53.70 mu g/kg and 20-1853 mu g/kg, respectively. Cluster analysis indicated that Ag, As, Au, and Hg are strongly correlated with Sb, and therefore, they are the most suitable pathfinder elements for the exploration of Sb deposits. Threshold values of these elements were determined with the use of median absolute deviation (MAD) method. In addition, an anomaly map of each element and the element groups yielding the most ideal results for the exploration of Sb deposits were also ascertained using multi-element mapping. Results indicate that As + Au and Ag + As + Au are the most ideal multi-elements in the exploration of Sb deposits. In this method, some elements that yield weak anomalies when solely used were found to be effective when combined with other elements. These element associations can be successfully used in future Sb geochemical exploration works.