The Effect of Autoclave Sterilization on Microbial Decontamination and Bioactive Properties of Bee Pollen

Değirmenci A., Boyracı G. M., Er Kemal M., Yıldız O.

1st JOINT INTERNATIONAL APITHERAPY CONGRESS, İstanbul, Turkey, 20 - 26 May 2021, pp.111-115

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • City: İstanbul
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.111-115
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The bee pollen today has begun to recognize as an important product by consumers and food

industry as the result of investigations of its nutritional and therapeutic properties. However,

three main parts of pollen wall, pollen coat, exine, and intine form a quite resistant structure to

prevent the intracellular compounds from digestive degradation. Fermentation, which is

considered to be an effective method of breaking down the exine layer of bee pollen, facilitates

the release of compounds from the pollen matrix and contributes to an increase in the fraction

absorbed during digestion. The fermented product produced by bees in the honeycomb cells

with pollen, honey and effect of various enzymes in their digestive systems is called bee bread.

This product has prompted researchers to adapt the fermentation in the hive to lab conditions.

Research interest has been raised about spontaneous fermentation and/or fermentation with

added bacteria of pollen. In this study, the effect of autoclave sterilization (121 °C, 15 min) on

microbial decontamination and bioactive properties of bee pollen was investigated. TPCs were

found as 8.95 mg GAE/g DW for non-processed pollen, 29.32 mg GAE/g DW for autoclaved

pollen. TPCs were 19.67, 32.09, 11.55 mg GAE/g DW for pollen substrates with pollen:water

ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 3:1 after autoclave sterilization, respectively. The FRAP values have been

shown statistically significant increase for all samples after sterilization. Non-processed pollen,

autoclaved pollen, pollen substrates with pollen:water ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 3:1 after autoclave

sterilization showed free radical scavenging activity on DPPH with SC50 7.66, 3.32, 3.27, 3.12,

and 4.90 mg/mL DW, respectively. The number of LAB in non-processed pollen on MRS is

13.4x104 CFU/g. Total mesophilic aerobic count in PCA is found as 21.7 x104 CFU/g. Yeastmolds

in MEA is 6.1 x105 CFU/g. Growth of microorganisms after autoclave sterilization was

not detected.