Turbot,Scophthalmus maximus, is a commercially important demersal flatfish species distributed throughout the Black Sea. Several studies performed locally with a limited number of specimens using both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers evidenced notable genetic variation among populations. However, comprehensive population genetic studies are required to help management of the species in the Black Sea. In the present study eight microsatellite loci were used to resolve the population structure of 414 turbot samples collected from 12 sites across the Black Sea. Moreover, two mtDNA genes, COI and Cyt-b, were used for taxonomic identification. Microsatellite markers of Smax-04 and B12-I GT14 were excluded from analysis due to scoring issues. Data analysis was performed with the remaining six loci. Loci were highly polymorphic (average of 17.8 alleles per locus), indicating high genetic variability. Locus 3/20CA17, with high null allele frequency (>30%), significantly deviated from HW equilibrium. Pairwise comparison of theF(ST)index showed significant differences between most of the surveyed sampling sites (P < 0.01). Cluster analysis evidenced the presence of three genetic groups among sampling sites. Significant genetic differentiation between Northern (Sea of Azov and Crimea) and Southern (Turkish Black Sea Coast) Black Sea sampling sites were detected. The Mantel test supported an isolation by distance model of population structure. These findings are vital for long-term sustainable management of the species and development of conservation programs. Moreover, generated mtDNA sequences would be useful for the establishment of a database forS. maximus.