Biomass is the major source of energy in rural Turkey. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. Biomass potential includes wood and animal and plant wastes. Among the biomass energy sources, faelwood seems to be the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21 %. The total biomass energy potential of Turkey is about 32 Mtoe. The amount of usable biomass potential of Turkey is approximately 17 Mtoe. The electrical production from usable biomass has a net impact of $4.4 billion in personal and corporate income and represents more than 160,000 jobs. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.