Risk Factors and Frequency of Foot Ulceration in Patients Receiving Chronic Hemodialysis Treatment


Özdemir V. A., NURAL N.

Advances in Skin and Wound Care, vol.37, no.4, pp.203-210, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 37 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/asw.0000000000000117
  • Journal Name: Advances in Skin and Wound Care
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, PASCAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.203-210
  • Keywords: chronic kidney disease, foot ulceration, hemodialysis, prevalence, risk factors, ulcer
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and risk factors of foot ulceration in patients receiving hemodialysis treatment. METHODS A total of 180 patients who received hemodialysis treatment in two state hospitals and a private health center between April 2017 and September 2017 were included in the study. The researchers collected data using a patient information form and by conducting physical evaluation of the lower extremities. They used the diabetic foot risk assessment algorithm to classify risk according to the data obtained. RESULTS Of the patients receiving hemodialysis treatment, 6.7% had foot ulceration, 19.4% had a history of foot ulceration, and 8.3% had a history of hospitalization associated with ulceration in a lower extremity. Infected foot ulceration was the most common (6.1%) cause of hospitalizations. In the group with current or past foot ulceration, diabetic nephropathy was the most common etiologic factor of end-stage kidney disease (48.6%); there was a significant between-group difference in diabetic nephropathy (P <.05). Etiologic factors had a significant effect on foot ulcerations: As determined by univariate logistic regression, diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.727; P <.05), presence of neuropathy (OR, 4.208; P <.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR, 1.013; P <.05), and serum albumin (OR, 0.302; P <.036) all had a statistically significant effect on the presence of foot ulcerations. CONCLUSIONS Patients receiving hemodialysis treatment are at high risk for foot ulceration. Therefore, patient awareness strategies should be expanded to include individuals with end-stage renal disease regardless of diabetes status. Clinical and dialysis nurses should educate these patients about foot ulcerations and foot health to prevent ulcer development.