Students have some misunderstandings in their minds as a result of their experiences acquired before they come to the learning media and during learning process. Such misunderstandings in students' minds obstruct performance of an effective concept teaching. Teachers, who are aware of such misunderstandings in students' minds, can plan teaching by considering such misunderstandings and can design activities to help their students to construct these concepts in their mind scientifically. The present study is a literature review intended for determining common misunderstandings in nuclear chemistry unit. Misunderstandings in nuclear chemistry unit shall be displayed as a whole at the end of the study. Also, both of program developers and teachers, who guide students for ensuring their conceptual learning, shall be assisted in planning teaching/learning media. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.