Bird species of Erzurum Marshes, which were known to be the "Bird Paradise" in the region until recently experiencing a rapid decline. Risks threatening bird species in the region were examined. Erzurum Marshes, located in the northeastern part of the country, host almost half of the bird species of Turkey of which many bird species are under threat both at national and international level. In all 239 bird species were identified. Among these species, 10 species were found to be under threat of extinction at national and international (IUCN) scale. Deterioration of habitats of birds as well as other forms of life has been considered to be the most important factor. Even though the importance of wetland ecosystems is well known, no remarkable effort for saving the Erzurum Marshes, was observed.