The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), encompassing 27 dams and 19 hydroelectric power plants, is a large-scale water management program aiming at an increase in domestic electricity production and the development of vast irrigation schemes for agriculture. In spite of numerous benefits experienced in the area, there is also a multitude of impacts observed on the environment. The Coruh River is the longest river of the East Black Sea region and is of high economic importance to Turkey because of its largely exploitable hydropower potential. The Coruh project consists of 27 planned dams and hydroelectric power plants. The planned dams have the potential to cause serious environmental effects in upstream Turkey and downstream Georgia. Equitable, rational, and optimal utilization of transboundary water resources can be achieved through a scientific study, which will determine the true water needs of each riparian country. A precise assessment is needed of the economic, ecological, and social problems on the basis of the environmental impact and cumulative effect assessment reports.