HLA class I and class II alleles were studied for the first time in 234 unrelated individuals inhabiting the East Black Sea region in Turkey. This region is on the historic silk road and close to Georgia. HLA class I (A* and B*) and class II DRB1* typing was done by the PCR-SSP method. A total of 17 HLA-A* alleles, 34 HLA-B* alleles, and 15 HLA-DRB1* alleles were detected. HLA-A*-B*, A*-DRB1*, and B*-DRB1* two-loci linkage disequilibrium data show that two specific combinations (A2-B35, A2-DRB1*11, and B35-DRB1*13) had the highest frequency (more than three or four times) compared with the other two-loci combinations, possibly reflecting an ancient founder effect. A*24 B*18 DRB1*13 and A*32 B*27 DRB1*11 were the most common haplotypes in the east Black sea Turkish population. HLA-B* showed the highest heterozygosity (94%) among the samples. The observed diversity in the HLA-A* and HLA-DRB1* loci was quite similar, ranging from 79% to 84%. We suggest that the east Black Sea Turkish population is characterized by the features of the Turkish anthropological type with some influence of other groups, such as Caucasians, Asians and Mediterreans.