© 2020. The Korean Society of Sleep Medicine. All Rights Reserved.Background and ObjectiveaaThe objective of this study was to determine whether there were differences in diet and sleep quality between shift and non-shift nurses. Nurses among healthcare professionals mostly work in shifts. Therefore, they may face many health problems. Changes of their dietary pattern and sleep quality might be among underlying causes for their health risks. MethodsaaThis descriptive and cross-sectional research enrolled 298 nurses working in two hospitals who volunteered to participate in this study. The work schedule of nurses included a non-shift work and a shift-work. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed using a three-factor PSQI model. ResultsaaBased on the three-factor PSQI model, scores for sleep efficiency, sleep quality, and daily disturbances were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in shift nurses than in non-shift nurses. Among individuals with good sleep quality, the diet quality of shift nurses was worse (p < 0.05) than that of non-shift nurses. Among individuals with poor sleep quality, there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in total diet quality score according to shift status. ConclusionsaaShift work was significantly associated with poor sleep quality. Among nurses with good sleep quality, the diet quality of shift nurses was worse than that of non-shift nurses.