The use of neuroimaging, Prechtl's general movement assessment and the Hammersmith infant neurological examination in determining the prognosis in 2-year-old infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy who were treated with hypothermia

APAYDIN U., Erol E., YILDIZ A., YILDIZ R., Acar Ş. S., GÜCÜYENER K., ...More

Early Human Development, vol.163, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 163
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2021.105487
  • Journal Name: Early Human Development
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, Hypothermia, General movements, Hammersmith infant neurological examination, Outcome, CEREBRAL-PALSY, HIGH-RISK, THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA, TERM, PATTERNS, PRETERM, MARKER, TOOL
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2021 Elsevier B.V.Background: The use of neuroimaging, the General Movement Assessment (GMA), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) to identify the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in early infancy is recommended. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the predictive power of neuroimaging, GMA and HINE for neurodevelopmental delay and cerebral palsy (CP) in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) who were treated with hypothermia. Study design: Retrospective cohort. Subjects and outcome measures: This retrospective study included 47 (18 female and 29 male) infants who were treated with hypothermia due to HIE. Neonates with a diagnosis of HIE were followed and assessed using neuroimaging, GMA, HINE and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-II (Bayley II) between 3 m and 2 years of age. Results: Out of the 47 infants with HIE, no fidgety movements were observed in 5 infants. The sensitivity and specificity in determining the psychomotor developmental index (PDI) score were 97% and 100%, respectively, for MRI; 92.9% and 100% for GMA; and 91.9% and 80% for the HINE. The sensitivity and specificity in determining the mental developmental index (MDI) score were 95% and 85.7%, respectively, for MRI; 90.5% and 80% for GMA; and 91.9% and 50% for HINE. The sensitivity and specificity in determining CP diagnosis at the age of 2 years were 83.3% and 95%, respectively, for MRI; 83.3% and 100% for GMA; and 83.3% and 87.8% for HINE. Conclusion: The interpretation of MRI, GMA, and HINE that are performed within the early period of life may be the gold standard for the early detection of neurodevelopmental risks in 2-year-old infants with HIE. Clinical implementation of these methods in the early period in the follow-up of these infants offers useful information for the early identification of neurodevelopmental risk and for planning early intervention.