In the present study, mitotic chromosome numbers of 18 Tragopogon taxa from Turkey, including five endemic species, were counted. The plant material originates from 30 populations. The chromosome numbers of T. albinervis (2n = 12), T. dshimilensis (2n = 12), T. oligolepis (2n = 12), T. porrifolius subsp. abbreviatus (2n = 12) and T. subacaulis (2n = 12) are reported for the first time. The chromosome numbers are published for the first time from Turkish accessions, except for T. coloratus, T. latifolius var. latifolius, T. reticulatus, and T. porrifolius subsp. longirostris. Of the studied plants 13 taxa proved to be diploid (2n = 12) and five taxa tetraploid (2n = 24). The chromosome numbers obtained from the present study are consistent with previous reports.