Evaluation of risk factors for foot ulceration in individuals with chronic kidney disease

Özdemir V. A., NURAL N.

Wounds : a compendium of clinical research and practice, vol.35, no.10, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


INTRODUCTION: CKD, like DM, is an independent risk factor for the development and course of foot ulcers. OBJECTIVE: The authors studied the incidence and risk factors of foot ulceration in patients with CKD and with or without DM and in patients receiving or not receiving HD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with or without DM and with renal failure were divided into 4 groups of 40 patients each according to whether or not they were receiving HD. Data were collected using a patient information form, physical examination of the foot, and risk assessment forms. RESULTS: Lower extremity ulceration was highest in group 3 (HD+DM+) (15% [6 of 40]), that is, in patients with CKD and DM receiving HD (P = .421). Patients in group 3 were at highest risk for foot ulcers (72.5%) compared with other groups (P = .001). Risk factors associated with foot ulceration were advanced stage (ie, stage 4 or 5) CKD, HD treatment, age, BMI, history of lower extremity ulceration and/or amputation, foot deformities, skin and nail pathology, neuropathy, and vascular insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CKD receiving HD are at high risk for foot ulcers, and this risk increases with the presence of DM.