Lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is a cholesterol-rich lipoprotein that structurally resembles the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles, but contains a molecule of apolipoprotein (a) attached to apolipoprotein B by disulfide bond. Because of the fact that high plasma levels of Lp (a) have been shown to be associated with cerebrovascular disease (CVD), we determined plasma Lp (a) levels in CVD for the Turkish population, and compared them with previous findings of some developed countries. Plasma Lp (a) levels were evaluated in CVD and control groups. The mean plasma Lp (a) levels in the CVD group was found to be approximately two-fold higher than that of the control group (0.21 g/l vs 0.38 g/l). Also, it was found to be higher than the mean levels of CVD group in the other populations described in previous reports. But CVD prevalence in the Turkish population is lower than in those of developed countries, especially United States and Japan. Therefore, we believe that each of those populations should determine their plasma Lp (a) levels to observe the risk for CVD.