A New Higher-Order Finite Element for Static Analysis of Two-Directional Functionally Graded Porous Beams


Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol.48, no.10, pp.13303-13321, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13369-023-07742-8
  • Journal Name: Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, zbMATH
  • Page Numbers: pp.13303-13321
  • Keywords: 2D FG materials, Finite element, Static analysis, Parabolic shear deformation theory, 2D FG porous beams, SANDWICH BEAMS, VIBRATION ANALYSIS, STABILITY ANALYSIS, BENDING BEHAVIOR, SHEAR, MICROBEAMS
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A new higher-order finite element for the static analysis of two-directional functionally graded (2D FG) porous beams subjected to various boundary conditions based on parabolic shear deformation theory (PSDT) is presented. The main purpose of this study is to predict the deflections and stresses of 2D FG porous and non-porous beams with the help of the proposed finite element. Since a higher-order finite element with a third order polynomial is used, the deflections and stresses can be accurately and rapidly obtained even for short beams. In addition, the new higher-order element is free of shear locking phenomenon without requiring any shear correction factors. Three types of distribution functions were used for porosity in this study. To the author's knowledge, the sinusoidal uneven distribution function (FGP-3) is presented for the first time. The governing equations are derived by Lagrange’s principle using a parabolic shear deformation theory that considers normal and shear deformations. According to a power-law rule, the material change in the beam volume in both directions is defined. The dimensionless maximum transverse deflections, normal stresses, and shear stresses are obtained for various boundary conditions, gradation exponents (px, pz) in the x- and z-directions, porosity coefficient (e), porosity distribution (FGP-1, FGP-2, FGP-3), and the slenderness (L/h). This study's new higher-order finite element gives results compatible with the literature and it can be used to accurately find the deflections and stresses for the 2D FG non-porous or porous beams subjected to various boundary conditions.