We present new, whole-rock major and trace element chemistry, including rare earth elements (REE), platinum-group elements (PGE), and Re-Os isotope data from the upper mantle peridotites of a Cretaceous Neo-Tethyan ophiolite in the Mugla area in SW Turkey. We also report extensive mineral chemistry data for these peridotites in order to better constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic environment of formation. The Mugla peridotites consist mainly of cpx-harzburgite, depleted harzburgite, and dunite. Cpx-harzburgites are characterized by their higher average CaO (2.27 wt.%), Al2O3 (2.07 wt.%), REE (53 ppb), and Os-187/Os-188((i)) ratios varying between 0.12497 and 0.12858. They contain Al-rich pyroxene with lower Cr content of coexisting spinel (Cr# = 13-22). In contrast, the depleted harzburgites and dunites are characterized by their lower average CaO (0.58 wt.%), Al2O3 (0.42 wt.%), and REE (1.24 ppb) values. Their clinopyroxenes are Al-poor and coexist with high-Cr spinel (Cr# = 33-83). The Os-187/Os-188((i)) ratios are in the range of 0.12078-0.12588 and are more unradiogenic compared to those of the cpx-harzburgites.