Diagnosis and treatment of osteopenia


KARAGÜZEL G. , Holick M.

REVIEWS IN ENDOCRINE & METABOLIC DISORDERS, vol.11, no.4, pp.237-251, 2010 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11154-010-9154-0
  • Title of Journal : REVIEWS IN ENDOCRINE & METABOLIC DISORDERS
  • Page Numbers: pp.237-251

Abstract

Osteopenia is a term to define bone density that is not normal but also not as low as osteoporosis. By definition from the World Health Organization osteopenia is defined by bone densitometry as a T score -1 to -2.5. There are many causes for osteopenia including calcium and vitamin D deficiency and inactivity. Genetics plays an important role in a person's bone mineral density and often Caucasian women with a thin body habitus who are premenopausal are found to have osteopenia. Correction of calcium and vitamin D deficiency and walking 3 to 5 miles a week can often improve bone density in the hip and spine. There are a variety of pharmaceutical agents that have been recommended for the treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis including hormone replacement therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulator therapy, anti-resorptive therapy. In addition patients with osteoporosis who have failed anti-resorptive therapy can have a significant improvement in their bone density with anabolic therapy.