Biomass can play a dual role in greenhouse gas mitigation related to the objectives of the UNFCCC, i.e., as an energy source to substitute for fossil fuels and as a carbon store. However, compared to the maintenance and enhancement of carbon sinks and reservoirs, it appears that the use of biomass has so far received less attention as a means of mitigating climate change. Modem biomass options offer significant, cost-effective and perpetual opportunities toward meeting emission reduction targets while providing additional ancillary benefits. Moreover, via the sustainable use of the accumulated carbon, biomass has the potential for resolving some of the critical issues surrounding long-term maintenance of biotic carbon stocks. In the case of Turkey, energy consumption and environmental pollution are increasing rapidly due to its economic growth. As for the energy consumption, in parallel to the demand for heat and electricity, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from energy use increase accordingly. In this regard, biomass and other renewables are becoming an attractive solution to the GHG mitigation for Turkey and other countries throughout the world. Finally, wood products can act as substitutes for more energy-intensive products, can constitute carbon sinks, and can be used as biofuels at the end of their lifetime.