Militarization and Transformation of Artificial Intelligence in the Future of Foreign Policy: Triggering the International Security Dilemma

Güntay V.

78th Annual MPSA Conference, Illinois, United States Of America, 14 - 18 April 2021

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Unpublished
  • City: Illinois
  • Country: United States Of America
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Innovations in the field of artificial intelligence, which we are obliged to use to meet the needs of the increasing world population, will affect many areas of our lives, as well as transform state systems and international balances. Artificial intelligence systems, which can be summarized as systems or machines that imitate human intelligence and can recursively improve themselves according to the information they collect, now collect data on their own, use these data for their systems and turn them into abstract thinking by programming themselves. In this new stage, countries such as the USA, Germany, China and Russia have seen the undisputed power of artificial intelligence in the field of military-security as well as commercial and medical issues. The development and use of artificial intelligence in the context of preserving the balance of power in international relations has become an essential element of state policies. Instead of the 20th century's nation-state-oriented understanding, an international system with multi-system actors constitutes the starting point of this study. The main argument in this study is that artificial intelligence-based weapons will not only be under the state monopoly and non-state actors such as terrorist organizations will become more substantial threats in the context of security. While this will increase the importance of cooperation with allied and neighboring states, it will create an extensive security dilemma in the international sense. Artificial intelligence will widen the gap between countries' strategic mobility capabilities, and governments that cannot benefit from this technology will be at an absolute disadvantage in many aspects such as risk assessment, strategy selection and decision-making reliability. While the global gross national product is expected to increase by 16 percent in 2030 thanks to technologies based on artificial intelligence, countries that want to take advantage of the opportunities offered by these technologies are preparing strategies for artificial intelligence and shifting the nature of foreign policy to a different area. Processes for data collection have now changed. The needs of data collection from social media and face-scanning technology have also changed. Artificial intelligence technologies that understand and perceive who are sick from body temperature are changing. Robotic artificial intelligence is focused on developing vaccine studies. It will not come as a surprise that governments use facial recognition technology for different purposes. In this direction, it may be possible to use face recognition systems in uncrewed aerial vehicles and counter-terrorism operations. In other words, artificial intelligence conflicts will have effects on the execution of operations. On the other hand, the development of artificial intelligence on military technologies and the path taken cannot be explained solely by the struggle between states. There is an intellectual development behind the view that autonomous weapons or robots can work better, more effectively and in a more harmonious way compared to humans. The idea of states, international organizations, private companies and even individuals to protect themselves against any actor in the international system is related to changing conditions. The main point of this study is a search for the question of whether the path taken by artificial intelligence in terms of future security can be evaluated in an ethical framework with international legal regulations.