Field Observations and Numerical Investigations on Seismic Damage Assessment of RC and Masonry Minarets During the February 6th, 2023, Kahramanmaraş (Mw 7.7 Pazarcık and Mw 7.6 Elbistan) Earthquakes in Türkiye

ATMACA B., ERTÜRK ATMACA E., Roudane B., Güleş O., Demİrkaya E., Aykanat B., ...More

International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/15583058.2024.2337651
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Architectural Heritage
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Art Source, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Geobase, Index Islamicus, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: damages, Kahramanmaraş Earthquakes, Masonry, Minarets, nonlinear finite element analysis, reinforced Concrete
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


On February 6, 2023, two massive earthquakes struck the EasternAnatolian Fault Line (EAF) at 9-hour intervals. The Mw 7.7 and Mw 7.6 earthquakes were located in Pazarcık and Elbistan districts inKahramanmaraş province. These earthquakes directly damaged 11 provinces in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia (Kahramanmaraş,Hatay, Adyaman, Osmaniye, Gaziantep, Şanlurfa, Malatya, Diyarbakır,Adana, Kilis, and Elazığ), causing substantial loss of life and property. This study aims to present the field investigation of reinforced concrete (RC) and masonry minarets in 11 cities around the area after these earthquakes and the structural performance and collapse mechanism of two minarets selected as case studies. For this purpose, the damaged or collapsed minarets in the region affected by the earthquakes were determined and the reasons were explained. In addition, an RC and a masonry minaret in the İslahiye district were chosen as case studies, and finite element models (FEM) were created.The validity and correctness of the reasons for damages determined by field observations were further demonstrated by numerical findings.It was determined that nearly all of the damaged and collapsed minarets did not obtain proper engineering services. Additionally, it is believed that the lack of any norms or regulations for these unique constructions is a significant weakness that places engineers in a challenging situation throughout the design phase.