The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats. The induction of ANP resulted in significant increase in mortality rate, pancreatic necrosis and serum activity of amylase, alanine aspartate transferase (ALT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, serum concentration of urea, tissue activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the pancreas and lung, and significant decrease of concentrations of calcium, blood pressure, urine output and pO(2). The use of NAC inhibited the changes in urine output, pO(2), tissue activity of MPO and MDA in pancreas and lungs, and the serum activity of IL-6, ALT, and serum concentrations of urea and calcium. NAC reduced the mortality and pancreatic damage. The use of NAC has a beneficial effect on the course of ANP in rats. It may be used in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.