Turkey, like many countries today, faces challenges in efficiently developing and managing its water resources while working to maintain water quality and protect the environment. This situation causes that the transboundary rivers in Turkey have been the most important. In this study, issues relating the development and management of the transboundary rivers of Turkey are discussed. For this purpose, this paper analyses the general characteristics, climate and water resources, current water usage status, and energy potential of the transboundary rivers, namely Euphrates-Tigris, Coruh, Orontes, Kura-Arax, and Maritza. In addition, two significance development plans, which are the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) and the Coruh River Development Plan located in the transboundary rivers, are evaluated. The total feasible hydro-power potential of projects reaches 37896 GW h/yr when all planned projects are completed. This value corresponds to 16.5% of the annual electric energy production of the Turkey in 2011. The GAP will also irrigate 1058509 hectare of land area.