Upgrading of biomass materials as energy sources: Liquefaction of mosses from Turkey

Demirbas A., Ozdemir T., Sahin B., Gullu D., Akdeniz F., Caglar A.

ENERGY SOURCES, vol.22, no.5, pp.403-408, 2000 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2000
  • Journal Name: ENERGY SOURCES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.403-408
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Air-dried and ground moss samples were subjected to supercritical and catalytic fluid extractions by using water, acetone, glycerol, or benzene as solvent at different temperatures in noncatalytic runs. Ground moss samples were suspended in water containing sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate catalysts at 575 K in a 0.1-liter autoclave. Yields of 71.7-79.8 % were obtained by catalytic liquefaction of the samples. The proximate analysis data and the higher heating values (HHV) of the samples were determined. The HHV as MJ/kg of the moss samples as a function of fixed carbon (FC) were calculated from the following equation: