Lasers in Medical Science, vol.38, no.1, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments combined with laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of different CAD-CAM ceramics to composite resin. A total of hundred forty-seven ceramic specimens with thicknesses of 2.5 mm were prepared from three different CAD-CAM ceramics (an yttrium oxide partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP); a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass ceramic (ZLS); and a lithium disilicate–strengthened lithium aluminosilicate glass ceramic (LD-LAS)) and subjected to seven groups of treatment (n = 7): (1) control (no treatment), (2) Er:YAG laser irradiation, (3) Nd:YAG laser irradiation, (4) etching with hydrofluoric acid (HFA), (5) Er:YAG + HFA, (6) Nd:YAG + HFA, and (7) sandblasting. After surface treatment procedures, a ceramic primer (Clearfil Ceramic Primer Plus, Kuraray, Japan) was applied to the ceramics. Bonding agent (Single Bond Universal Adhesive, 3 M ESPE, USA) was then applied, and the composite resin (Estelite Sigma Quick, Kuraray, Japan) was layered on the ceramic surfaces. The shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine at a load of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Bonferroni correction was used for pairwise comparisons (α = 0.05). Compared to the bond strength of the control group, irradiation by Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers alone improved the bond strength of the composite resin to the Y-TZP (P < 0.001) but did not change the bond strength of composite resin to the ZLS and LD-LAS (P > 0.05). Compared to the bond strength of the control group, etching with HFA alone increased the bond strength of the composite resin to the ZLS and LD-LAS (P < 0.001) but did not affect the bond strength of the composite resin to the Y-TZP (P > 0.05). The highest bond strength of ZLS was obtained using HFA + Er:YAG, and the highest bond strength for LD-LAS was obtained using HFA + Nd:YAG. It was concluded that Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser treatments presented the highest repair bond strength between the composite resin and Y-TZP ceramics. Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser treatments in conjuction with HFA presented the highest repair bond strength between the composite resin and the glassy ceramics, ZLS, and LD + LAS.