Shredded banknotes reconstruction using AKAZE points

Nabıyev V. , Yılmaz S., Günay Yılmaz A. , Tahaoğlu G. , Ulutaş G.

FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol.278, pp.280-295, 2017 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 278
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.07.014
  • Page Numbers: pp.280-295


Shredded banknote reconstruction is a recent topic and can be viewed as solving large-scale jigsaw puzzles. Also, problems such as reconstruction of fragmented documents, photographs and historical artefacts are closely related with this topic. The high computational complexity of these problems increases the need for the development of new methods Reconstruction of shredded banknotes consists of three main stages. (1) Matching fragments with a reference banknote. (2) Aligning the fragments by rotating at certain angles. (3) Assembling the fragments. The existing methods can successfully applied to synthetic banknote fragments which are created in computer environment. But when real banknote reconstruction problem is considered, different sub problems arise and make the existing methods inadequate. In this study, a keypoint based method, named AKAZE, was used to make the matching process effective. This is the first study that uses the AKAZE method in the reconstruction of shredded banknotes. A new method for fragment alignment has also been proposed. In this method, the convex hulls that contain all true matched AKAZE keypoints were found on reference banknote and fragments. The orientations of fragments were estimated accurately by comparing these convex polygons. Also, a new criterion was developed to reveal the success rates of reconstructed banknotes. In addition, two different data sets including real and synthetic banknote fragments of different countries were created to test the success of proposed method. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.