Gender disparities in Behçet’s syndrome: identifying distinct phenotypes through cluster analysis


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KILIÇ G., KÖRÜKLÜ K. F., KUMCU M. G., ÇAKIR E., KARKUCAK M., Kılıç E.

Immunologic Research, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12026-024-09498-1
  • Journal Name: Immunologic Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Behçet’s syndrome, Clinical phenotype, Cluster, Gender
  • Karadeniz Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Behçet’s syndrome (BS) is a complex, multi-systemic disorder with a global occurrence, notably concentrated along the Silk Road. This study aimed to investigate gender-specific expressions and clinical phenotypes in BS patients within the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. A total of 290 BS patients were retrospectively analyzed between January 2013 and December 2023. Demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, medical treatment, and pathergy test results were obtained from a review of medical records. The mean age was 45.79 ± 13.05, with a male-to-female ratio of 48.6:51.4. Male patients had higher papulopustular lesions (p < 0.001) and ocular involvement (p = 0.036), while females showed more frequent genital ulcers (p = 0.032). Medication usage showed gender-based variations, notably higher corticosteroid, azathioprine, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor (TNFi) use in males (p < 0.001). Cluster analysis revealed five distinct clusters, each with unique features and gender predominance. Cardiovascular type, ocular type, and skin type predominantly featured male patients, while joint involvement type and neurologic and mucosal involvement type were more prevalent among female patients with BS. This research contributes valuable insights into the gender-related clinical variations of BS within a specific geographic region, fostering a more comprehensive understanding of this challenging syndrome. The identification of distinct clinical phenotypes facilitates the development of tailored treatment strategies, potentially leading to improved outcomes for patients with BS.