A previously healthy female, aged 4 years 3 months, developed brainstem encephalitis with clinical manifestations of fever, decreased level of consciousness, and left facial and abducens paralysis 1 week after bilateral parotitis. Twenty days after remission of encephalitis, she manifested new symptoms of ataxia, dysarthria, and fever. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple hyperintense lesions which were increased in size when compared with the first magnetic resonance imaging. She was treated with glucocorticoids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Forty-eight days after therapy, she was able to walk with support and recovered completely on follow-up. Brainstem encephalitis and acute disseminating encephalomyelitis are discussed as rare complications of mumps. (C) 2004 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.